Speech Pathology Dictionary V Terms

Speech Pathology Dictionary V Terms2019-01-18T21:21:00+00:00
Term Definition
Vagas Nerve See Cranial Nerves
Velar Assimilation See Phonological Processes – Assimilation
Velar Fronting See Phonological Processes – Substitution
Velum (Vela is the plural) The soft palate.

Link 1: Wikipedia – Palate
Verbal Aphasia See Aphasia
Vesitbulocochlear Nerve See Cranial Nerves
Virgules A slash. In speech, the slanted lines that surround the phonemic symbols. For example, (/f/, /v/, /θ/, /ð/)
Visual Hearing Comprehending of language through visual stimuli.

Link 1: Hearing what the eyes see – National Center for Biotechnology Information 
Visual Perception See Perception
Vocal Relating to the human voice or speech.
Vocal Cords A term used interchangeably with the anatomical name of “vocal folds,” although the professional community is more likely to use the anatomical name.

buy clomid in australia online See also Vocal Folds.

Vocal Abuse and Misuse Any behavior or occurrence that injures or strains the vocal folds is vocal abuse. Excessive talking, screaming, singing, yelling, coughing or smoking can lead to vocal cord injuries or strains. Frequent vocal abuse can cause permanent damage and change vocal function and voice quality. Temporary and permanent loss of voice is possible. Vocal disorders can affect anyone from infants to the elderly. The following disorders can result:

  • Aphonia
  • Contact ulcers
  • Laryngitis
  • Vocal Nodules
  • Vocal Polyps
Link 1: Voice Disorders: Abuse, Misuse and Functional Problems – St. Louis University 
Vocal Folds Also called vocal cords. Twin infoldings of mucous membrane that is stretched horizontally across the larynx and controlled by the vagus nerve. These folds vibrate and modulate the flow of air from the lungs for speech and singing.

  • True vocal folds  -Vocal folds that vibrate to produce sound.
  • False vocal folds or Vestibular folds – A pair of thick folds of mucous membrane that protect the more delicate true folds. (They play a minor role in normal phonation, but can be used for deep tones.
Link 1: Wikipedia – Vocal Folds
Link 2: Vocal Folds in action YouTube
Link 3: Vocal Cord and Voice Box Anatomy – Video
Vocal Misuse Using the vocal folds in a damaging way, such as speaking very loudly or with an inappropriate pitch (too high or too low). Repeated misuse can lead to permanent damage to the vocal folds.

how to buy tinidazole online See also Vocal Abuse.

Vocal Nodules These are benign growths on both vocal cords caused by repeated and abusive rubbing of the vocal fold edges over time. The nodules start as soft swollen spots typically paired at the midpoint and opposite each other. As the phonotrauma continues, these spots develop into harder, callous like growths called nodules. These nodules become larger and stiffer over time. Typical symptoms are hoarseness, pain, decreased pitch range, frequent throat clearing, breathy voice and voice fatigue. Often, the nodules can be cured with rest and voice therapy, but they sometimes require surgery.

Link 1: Vocal Cord Nodules and Polyps – ASHA 
Link 2: Nodules, Polyps and Cysts – American Academy of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery
Vocal Polyps These are benign growths typically on one vocal cord and can have take several forms (hemorrhagic, edematous, pedunculated, sessile, gelatinous and hyalinized). It is widely believed that phonotrauma causes vocal polyps. Typical symptoms are hoarseness, pain, decreased pitch range, frequent throat clearing, breathy voice and voice fatigue. Often, the polyps can be cured with rest and voice therapy, but they sometimes require surgery.

Link 1: Vocal Cord Nodules and Polyps – ASHA 
Link 2: Nodules, Polyps and Cysts – American Academy of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery
Voiced Consonants See Consonants
Voiceless Consonants See Consonants
Vowel Vowels are sounds that do not have any blockage or turbulence in the airflow like consonants do. While there may be 5 or 6 vowels in the alphabet (A,E,I,O,U and sometimes Y) there are actually 14 vowels in the English language. (/i/, /I/. /e/, /ɛ/, /æ/, /u/, /ʊ/, /o/, /ɔ/, /a/. /ɝ/, /ʌ/, /ɚ/ and /ə/).The International Phonetic Alphabet identifies seven different vowel heights:

  • Close Vowel – (High vowel) Vowel sound produced when the tongue is high in the mouth. For example:
    • /i/ (upper-high or close, front, tense) the i in machine
    • /I/ (lower-high or near close, front, lax) the i in big
    • /u/ (upper-high or close, back, tense, rounded) the oo in cool
    • /ʊ/ (lower-high or near close, back, lax, semi-rounded) the oo in good
  • Open Vowel – (Low vowel) Vowel sound produced when the tongue is low in the mouth. For example:
    • /æ/ (low or open, front) the a in trap
    • /a/ (low or open, back) the a in father
  • Mid Vowel – Vowel sound produced when the height of tongue at a mid position in the mouth. For example:
    • /e/ (upper-mid, front, tense) the a in pay
    • /ɛ/ (lower-mid front, lax) the e in bet
    • /ɝ/ (upper-mid central, rhotic / retroflex) the ur in nurse
    • /ʌ/ (mid, central/ lax) the u in pup
    • /ɚ/ (upper-mid, central, lax, rhotic / retroflex) the ur in fur
    • /ə/ (lower-mid, central, lax) the a in away
    • /o/ (upper-mid, back, tense, rounded) the o in go
    • /ɔ/ (lower-mid, back, tense, rounded) the a in call
  • Back Vowel – Vowel sound produced by the arching of the tongue in the back part of the mouth with the lips rounded on all but /a/. For example:
    • /u/ (upper-high or close, back, tense, rounded) the ue in blue
    • /ʊ/ (lower-high or near close, back, lax, rounded) the u in put
    • /o/ (upper-mid, back, tense, rounded) the o in toe
    • /ɔ/ (lower-mid, back, rounded) the o in cost
    • /a/ (low or open, back) the a in father
  • Front Vowel – Vowel sound produced by the arching of the tongue in the front part of the mouth with the lips spread. For example:
    • /i/ (high or close) the ee in see
    • /I/ (lower high or near close) the i in hit
    • /e/ (upper mid) the a in pay
    • /ɛ/ (lower mid) the e in bet
    • /æ/ (low or near open) the a in black
  • Central Vowel – Vowel sound produced by the arching of the tongue in the middle section of the mouth unrounded. For example:
    • /ɝ/ (upper-mid central, rhotic / retroflex) the ur in nurse
    • /ɚ/ (upper-mid, central, lax, rhotic / retroflex) the ir in bird
    • /ʌ/ (mid, central/ lax) the u in luck
    • /ə/ (lower-mid, central, lax) the a in pasta
  • Diphthong – (literally two voices or two sounds) a speech sound that glides continuously from one vowel to another vowel in the same syllable. A dipthong is sometimes called the gliding vowel. The tongue moves during the pronunciation of a diphthong. For example:
    • /aI/ (1st vowel is low, back, unrounded; 2nd vowel is lower-high, front, unrounded)
      • The /a/ is longer in duration, while the /I/ is shorter and unstressed.
      • pie – /PaI/
    • /aʊ/  (1st vowel is low, back, unrounded; 2nd vowel is lower-high, back, rounded)
      • The /a/ is longer in duration, while the /ʊ/ is shorter and unstressed.
      • Cow – /kaʊ/
    • /ɔI/ (1st vowel is lower-mid, back, rounded; 2nd vowel is lower-high, front, unrounded)
      • The /ɔ/ is longer in duration, while the /I/ is shorter and unstressed.
      • Oil – /ɔIl/
    • /Iə/  (1st vowel is lower-high, front, unrounded; 2nd vowel is lower-mid, central, unrounded)
      • The /I/ is longer in duration, while the /ə/ is shorter and unstressed.
      • Here – /hIə(r)/
    • /eə/ (1st vowel is  upper-mid, front, unrounded; 2nd vowel is lower-mid, central, unrounded)
      • The /e/ is longer in duration, while the /ə/ is shorter and unstressed.
      • Bear – /beə(r)/
    • /eI/ (1st vowel is  upper-mid, front, unrounded; 2nd vowel is lower-high, front, unrounded)
      • The /e/ is longer in duration, while the /I/ is shorter and unstressed.
      • Say – /SeI/
    • /ʊə/ (1st vowel is  lower-high, back, rounded; 2nd vowel is lower-mid, central, unrounded)
      • The /ʊ/ is longer in duration, while the /ə/ is shorter and unstressed.
      • Sure – /sjʊə(r)
    • /əʊ/ (1st vowel is lower-mid, central, unrounded; 2nd vowel is lower-high, back, rounded)
      • The /e/ is longer in duration, while the /ʊ/ is shorter and unstressed
      • Probe – /prəʊb/
  • Triphthong – A group of three vowel sounds articulated together in one effort. For example our
  • Lax Vowel –  Vowel sound produced without muscle tension. Examples above.
  • Tense Vowel – Vowel sound produced with muscle tension. Examples above.
  • Rounded Vowel – Vowel sound produced with rounded lips. Examples above.
  • Unrounded Vowel – Vowel sound produced without rounded lips. Examples above.
  • Retroflex Vowel – Vowel sound produced with a curling of the tongue. Examples above.
  • Rhotic Vowel – (also r-colored, vocalic r or rhotacized) Vowel sound that has an /r/ like sound. Examples above.
Link 1: The sounds of the English and International Phonetic Alphabet – Antimony
Link 2: Wikipedia – Diphthong
Link 3: Wikipedia – Vowels
Link 4: Wikipedia – English-Phonology
Vowelization See Phonological Processes – Substitution